A joint in a human body is also known as an articulation or articular surface. Joints are usually defined as a connection in the skeletal system that occurs between bones. It provides movement depending on the characteristics and types of joints in human body which determines its degree and type of movement.
We can rotate our shoulders, swivel our neck, bend our knees and elbows, and more only with the help of joints. A joint is a point where two bones meet in providing a framework to permit movement.
Types of Joints in Human Body
The types of joints in human body are classified based on structure and function.
Structural Classification of Joints
According to the structural classification of joints, the types of joints in human body are divided into 3 types, namely:
Fibrous joints are the immovable joints that are found where bones are strongly united by fibrous connective tissue most commonly to create a structure.
A prominent example of a fixed joint is the skull, which is usually made up of a number of fused bones. Other examples include the upper jaw, backbone, rib cage, and pelvic bone, etc.
Cartilaginous joints are partly movable joints which consist of symphysis or synchondrosis joints. These types of joints in human body occur only in these particular regions where the connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage.
Synchondrosis are temporary cartilaginous joints present in young children and last until their end stage of puberty.
For example, the epiphyseal plates are present at each end of the long bones which is responsible for bone growth in children. The secondary cartilaginous joints or symphysis is permanent. Examples: the pubic symphysis. Other examples of cartilaginous types of joints include the ribcage and the spinal column.
The synovial joints are the most common types of joints in human body as it helps to perform a wide range of motion such as walking, typing, running, and more.
Synovial joints are movable, flexible, rotatable, can slide over one another, and so on. These joints are found in our wrist joint, neck joint, shoulder joint, knee joint, etc.
Functional Classification of Joints
Functional classification of joints depends on the type and degree of movement permitted. There are six types of joints in human body that are freely movable including:
Ball and Socket Joints
In these types of joints in human body, one bone is hooked into the hollow space of another bone. It is also called the ‘spheroidal joints’ to help in swinging and rotatory movements.
Also, these types of joints in human body are the most intricate and mobile of all the joints. The best example of ball and socket joints are the hip and shoulders.
Condyloid joints are the types of joints in human body which are also known as condylar, or ellipsoid joints that have two axes which permit up-down and side-to-side motions.
They are found at the base of the index finger, carpals of the elbow, wrist, and the wrist joints to allow extension/flexion, adduction/abduction and circumduction. Unlike ball and socket joints, the condyloid joints don’t permit axial rotation.
Gliding joints are also known as a plane or planar joint. These common types of joints in human body permit two or more flat bones or round bones to move freely together without any crushing or rubbing of bones.
This joint is found in the regions where the two bones meet and glide on one another in any of the directions. The forearm to wrist joint and the lower leg to the ankle joint are the two main examples of gliding joints.
Hinge joints are the types of joints in human body that resemble door hinges, where only back and forth movement are made possible. Examples of hinge joints include the ankle, elbows, and knee joints.
It allows straightening, flexing and bending of joints, allows movement only in one plane and also helps in lubricating the bones to make them move without friction.
In these types of joints in human body, one bone is tapped into the other in such a way that full rotation is not made possible. This joint helps in sideways, back and forth movements. Pivotal joints in the neck can be the best example for pivot joints.
There is a different pivot joint that is located in the base of the skull to join the first vertebra of the spine to that of the second vertebra and thus allows the heads to rotate.
The convex and concave portions of each bone in a saddle joint fit together like the saddle edges. These types of joints in human body allow similar angles of movement as a condyloid joint, but also aids in a wider range of motion.
In contrast with the fingers and wrists, a saddle joint can move up and down as well as back and forth. For example, the thumb is the only bone having a saddle joint within the physical body.
Kinds of freely movable joints
- Ball and attachment joint
- Pivot joint
- Condyloid joint
- Turn joint
- Skimming joint
- Saddle joint
How to Improve Joint Health?
It is significant to have some simple lifestyle changes adapting to the daily routine to begin alleviating pain dealing with the types of joints in human body. This can simultaneously improve bone strength changes, and reduce the risk for future pain and injury.
- Exercise daily. Consistently working out on a daily basis helps to alleviate joint pain and aid in osteoarthritis prevention besides strengthening the bones. Over time physical activity will decrease your pain as inflammation in your joints get reduced.
- Choose healthy foods. A healthy diet is essential to lose weight, and reduce joint pain caused by osteoarthritis. Enjoy joint and heart-health benefits from foods like olive oil, salmon, and green tea.
- Take correct supplements. Your doctor can provide advice regarding the supplements to aid in alleviating the joint pain. However, make sure to talk to a physician before adding them to your joint care routine.
Regardless of whether you already have osteoarthritis or osteoporosis, lifestyle changes can go a long way in improving the types of joints in human body. Losing weight can help you avoid knee surgery and other complications arising from joint degeneration.
To sum up, if you or your loved ones have aches and pain or injuries in the joints, you can approach Dr. C. Lenin and his experts from Dr. Lenin’s Orthoinde Hospital to get the best joint pain treatment in Chennai for different types of joints in human body which can aid patients to live a healthy and a better life.